Human teeth| Names, types| Tooth functions

Human Teeth

Human teeth| Names, types| Tooth functions

Human beings like most mammals have two sets of teeth, a deciduous set, and a permanent set. The deciduous set is made up of 20 teeth. The permanent set made up of 32 teeth. The teeth are divided into four types.

Types of human teeth

Human teeth| Names, types| Tooth functions

1. incisor group (I) 
2. Canine group (C)
3. Premolar group (P) 
4. Molar group (M)

Central and lateral incisors and canine, as a group, are called anterior teeth while all teeth posterior to the canine are called posterior teeth (molars in case of deciduous teeth and premolars and molars in case of permanent teeth).

• Incisors (8 total): The middlemost four teeth on the upper and lower jaws.
• Canines (4 total): The pointed teeth just outside the incisors.
• Premolars (8 total): Teeth between the canines and molars.
• Molars (8 total): Flat teeth in the rear of the mouth, best at grinding food.
• Wisdom teeth or third molars (4 total): These teeth erupt at around age 18, but are often surgically removed to prevent displacement of other teeth.

Tooth Function 

The function of the teeth varies, depending on their individual shape and size as well as their location in the jaws. The basic functions of the teeth are:

1. Food cutting holding or grasping and grinding are essential in aiding the digestive system by breaking down food. good chewing makes food more palatable.
2. Play an important role in phonetics or proper speech and smile.
3. Give shape to their face.
4. Maintain a good esthetics and appearance.
5. Guide the mandible posteriorly during the final phase of closing.

I. Incisors: are the sharp teeth at the front of the mouth that biting and cutting food into smaller during mastication due to their triangular proximal and flat with a thin edge. They are also called anterior teeth.
Both children and adults have eight incisors, four central incisors at the front of the mouth, two on each row, with one lateral incisor positioned on either side of them.

II. Canines: are the sharp, pointed teeth that sit next to the incisors and look like fangs. Dentists also call them cuspids or eyeteeth. Canines are the longest of all the teeth, and people use them to tear food.
Both children and adults have four canines. Children usually get their first permanent canines between the ages of 9 and 12. The lower canines tend to come through slightly before those in the upper jaw.

III. Premolars: premolars, or bicuspids, are found only in the permanent teeth, they are bigger than the incisors and canines. They have many ridges and to assist in grinding food during mastication because of their broad occlusal surface and prominent cusps. They also assist the canines in piercing, tearing and holding food with their cusps.
Adults have eight premolars. The first and second premolars are the molars that sit next to the canines. Young children do not have premolar teeth. These first appear as permanent teeth when children are 10–12 years old.

IV. Molars: Molars are the biggest of all the teeth. They have a wide occlusal surface, with ridges that allow them to chew food and grind it up.
Adults have 12 permanent molars, six on the bottom and top jaw, and children have eight primary molars.
The last molars to erupt are third molars, which usually come through between the ages of 17–21. These sit at the end of the row of teeth. Some people do not have all four molar teeth, or the teeth may stay unerupted in the bone and never appear in the mouth.
Sometimes wisdom teeth can become impacted, which means they can become trapped under the gum and are unable to come through properly.

TO learn more about the human teeth and Formation of the Dentitions, Nomenclature, Notation System Review our topic: Dental anatomy 🦷