TOOTH ANATOMY | Parts of the teeth | Teeth Conditions

Parts of the Teeth Include:

Each tooth has a crown and root portion. The crown of each tooth projects into the mouth. The root of each tooth descends below the gum line, into the jaw. The crown is covered with enamel, and the root portion is covered with cementum. The crown and root join at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). This junction, also called the cervical line.

Neck: Neck also called the dental cervix, sits between the crown and root, It forms the line where the cementum meets the enamel.

Our teeth are composed of four tissues, they are the enamel, cementum, dentin, and pulp. The first three are known as hard tissues, the last as soft tissue.
Enamel: The hardest, white outer part of the tooth. Enamel is mostly made of calcium phosphate, a rock-hard mineral.
Cementum: A layer of connective tissue that binds the roots of the teeth firmly to the gums and jawbone.
Dentin: Dentin is the main bulk of the tooth, it is a hard tissue that contains microscopic tubes. It extends from the crown down through the neck and root.

When the enamel is damaged, heat or cold can enter the tooth through these paths and cause sensitivity or pain.

The pulp or the center of the tooth is the innermost portion of the tooth. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue—is a soft, or non-calcified, tissue.

Pulp Cavity: The pulp cavity, sometimes called the pulp chamber, is the space inside the crown that contains the pulp.
Cervical Line: The cervical line is the junction between enamel and cementum.

Other Parts of the Teeth: 

Gums: Gums, also called gingiva, are the fleshy, pink connective tissue that’s attached to the neck of the tooth and the cementum. 
Root Canal: The root canal is a passageway that contains pulp. 
Jaw Bone: The jaw bone, also called the alveolar bone, is the bone that contains the tooth sockets and surrounds the teeth’s roots; it holds the teeth in place. 
Periodontal Ligament: Tissue that helps hold the teeth tightly against the jaw. 
Nerves and Blood Vessels: Blood vessels supply the periodontal ligament with nutrients, while nerves help control the amount of force used when you chew.

Teeth Conditions 

Cavities (Caries): are small black marks caused by a buildup of bacteria on the surface of a tooth. They can grow deeper into the tooth, eventually reaching the pulp. 

Cavities can cause pain, sensitivity to heat and cold, and damage the enamel and deeper structures of teeth may lead to infection or tooth loss. Most cavities occur on molars and premolars.

Periodontal: also known as gum disease. It’s an infection of the gums and the deeper structures of the teeth (periodontal ligament, jawbone, and cementum). Common symptoms include red, swollen, bleeding. 

It can also cause bad breath, pain, sensitivity, and lose teeth. Smoking, certain medications, and poor oral health increase your risk of gum disease. Poor oral hygiene is usually to blame.

Teeth grinding (bruxism): many people only do it when sleeping or Stress, anxiety .over time, bruxism can wear down tooth enamel, leading to damage and even tooth loss. 

It can also cause tooth, jaw, and ear pain, it can also damage your jaw and prevent it from opening and closing properly. 

Gingivitis: Inflammation of the surface portion of the gums, around and between the crowns of the teeth. Plaque and tartar buildup can lead to gingivitis. 
Plaque: is a soft deposit that forms a thin film and sticks on the surface of teeth and can be seen at the gum boundaries using discs disclosure. 

The bacteria in the plaque convert carbohydrates (such as sugar) into acid that removes tooth mineralization and ultimately causes necrosis or caries. 

Tartar: If plaque is not removed, it mixes with minerals to become tartar, a harder substance. Tartar requires professional cleaning for removal. 
Tooth Sensitivity: When one or more teeth become sensitive to hot or cold, it may mean the dentin is exposed. 
Malocclusion: Malocclusion is the misalignment of teeth. This can cause crowding, under-bites, or overbites. It’s often hereditary, Malocclusion can usually be corrected with braces. 
Tooth Erosion: is the breakdown and loss of enamel caused by acid or friction. Long-term dry mouth can also cause friction, leading to tooth erosion. 
Tooth impaction: it happens when there isn’t enough space for a new tooth to emerge, usually due to overcrowding. It’s common in wisdom teeth.